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Outdoor

White Kingdom

The White Mountains of California and Nevada are a triangular fault block mountain range facing the Sierra Nevada across the upper Owens Valley. They extend for approximately 60 mi (97 km) as a greatly elevated plateau about 20 mi (32 km) wide on the south, narrowing to a point at the north, with elevations generally increasing south to north. The range’s broad southern end is near the community of Big Pine, where Westgard Pass and Deep Springs Valley separate it from the Inyo Mountains. The narrow northern end is at Montgomery Pass, where U.S. Route 6 crosses. The Fish Lake Valley lies east of the range; the southeast part of the mountains are separated from the Silver Peak Range by block faulting across the Furnace Creek Fault Zone, forming a feeder valley to Fish Lake Valley. The range lies within the eastern section of the Inyo National Forest.

[ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_text_separator tag_size=”h1″ text_color=”color2″ icon_align=”left” tag=”div” tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_blog_media tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_text_separator tag_size=”h1″ text_color=”color2″ icon_align=”left” tag=”div” tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″]
[ish_headline tag_size=”h3″ color=”color5″ icon_align=”left” tag=”h” tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″ bottom_margin=”no”]History of The White Mountains[/ish_headline][ish_headline tag_size=”h4″ color=”none” icon_align=”left” tag=”h” tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″]Cattle from ranches in surrounding valleys are still grazed under permit as high as the alpine zone.[/ish_headline]

Historically sheep were also grazed in large numbers, introducing diseases from which the native Bighorn Sheep populations are still slowly recovering. Before European colonization of surrounding valleys in the mid 19th century, PaiuteIndians occupied summer hunting camps up to about 13,100 ft (4,000 m), leaving ruins of archeological interest.

[ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_headline tag_size=”h3″ color=”color5″ icon_align=”left” tag=”h” tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″ bottom_margin=”no”]Hiking[/ish_headline][ish_headline tag_size=”h4″ color=”none” icon_align=”left” tag=”h” tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″]A four-wheel drive road reaches the summit from the south to service the summit laboratory of the White Mountain Research Station.[/ish_headline]

The road is normally gated seven miles from the summit at an elevation of 11,680 ft (3,560 m), making this California’s easiest 14,000 ft (4,300 m) summit. North of White Mountain Peak, two sharp arêtes alternate along the crest with broad “whalebacks” and high plateaus with about six more summits over 13,000 ft (4,000 m). The crest crosses the California-Nevada state line just south of a final high summit Boundary Peak 13,147 ft (4,007 m), Nevada’s high point. Boundary Peak is the “prow” of the triangular fault block. It has views directly down into valleys to the west, north and east that are hidden by the increasing width of the high plateau to the south. North of Boundary Peak the range rapidly loses altitude and ends at Montgomery Pass.

The west face of the White Mountains rises steeply out of Owens Valley. Climbing to any summit from this direction is a scramble with about 8,000 ft (2,400 m) elevation gain. Eastern slopes are somewhat gentler and have numerous cirques left by Pleistoceneglaciers and even a few snowfields persisting through most summers. Most of these cirques are entered or approached by jeep roads and offer scenic yet non-technical routes to the crest.

[ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_gallery images=”349,19,441″ thumbnail_size=”theme-large” columns=”3″ animation=”slide” nav_align=”left” nav_color=”color1″ prevnext_color=”color3″ border_width=”1″ tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″ ratio=”square”][ish_gallery images=”358,444,440,447″ thumbnail_size=”theme-half” columns=”4″ animation=”slide” nav_align=”left” nav_color=”color1″ prevnext_color=”color3″ border_width=”1″ tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″ ratio=”rectangle16″][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″]

Simplicity Everywhere

[ish_quote author=”George Bernard Shaw” size=”h3″ align=”center” color=”color5″ tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″]”Life isn’t about finding yourself. Life is about
creating yourself.”[/ish_quote][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_text_separator tag_size=”h1″ text_color=”color2″ icon_align=”left” tag=”div” tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_headline tag_size=”h3″ color=”color5″ icon_align=”left” tag=”h” tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″]Quotes about simplicity[/ish_headline]

Simplicity is the state or quality of being simple. Something which is easy to understand or explain is simple, in contrast to something complicated. Alternatively, as Herbert A. Simon suggested, something is simple or complex depending on the way we choose to describe it.

In some uses, simplicity can be used to imply beauty, purity, or clarity. Simplicity may also be used in a negative connotation to denote a deficit or insufficiency of nuance or complexity of a thing, relative to what is supposed to be required.

The concept of simplicity has been related to in the field of epistemology. According to Occam’s razor, all other things being equal, the simplest theory is the most likely to be true. In the context of human lifestyle, simplicity can denote freedom from hardship, effort or confusion. Specifically, it can refer to a simple living style.

[ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_gallery images=”366,358″ thumbnail_size=”theme-large” columns=”2″ ratio=”rectangle16″ animation=”slide” nav_align=”left” nav_color=”color1″ prevnext_color=”color3″ border_width=”1″ tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_headline tag_size=”h3″ color=”color5″ icon_align=”left” tag=”h” tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″]Minimal art, minimalism in visual art[/ish_headline]

Minimalism in the arts began in post–World War II Western Art, most strongly with American visual arts in the 1960s and early 1970s. Prominent artists associated with minimalism include Donald Judd, John McCracken, Agnes Martin, Dan Flavin, Robert Morris, Anne Truitt, and Frank Stella. It derives from the reductive aspects of Modernism and is often interpreted as a reaction against Abstract expressionism and a bridge to Postminimal art practices.

[ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_quote author=”Unknown” size=”h4″ align=”center” color=”color5″ tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″]”In the visual arts and music, minimalism is a style that uses pared-down design elements.”[/ish_quote][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″]

Minimalism in music features repetition and iteration such as those of the compositions of La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass, and John Adams. Minimalist compositions are sometimes known as systems music. The term “minimalist” often colloquially refers to anything that is spare or stripped to its essentials. It has also been used to describe the plays and novels of Samuel Beckett, the films of Robert Bresson, the stories of Raymond Carver, and the automobile designs of Colin Chapman. The word was first used in English in the early 20th century to describe “a 1913 composition by the Russian painter Kasimir Malevich of a black square on a white ground”.

On the Top of the World

[ish_headline tag_size="h3" color="color5" icon_align="left" tag="h" tooltip_color="color1" tooltip_text_color="color3"]Top of the World Highway[/ish_headline] The Top of the World Highway is a 127-kilometre long highway, beginning at a junction with the Taylor Highway near Jack Wade, Alaska traveling east to its terminus at the ferry terminal in West Dawson, Yukon, on the western banks of the Yukon River....

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Mountains of Valais

The Canton of Valais is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, situated in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of theRhône from its headwaters to Lake Geneva, separating the Pennine Alps from the Bernese Alps. The canton is simultaneously one of the driest regions of Switzerland in its central Rhône valley and among the wettest, having large amounts of snow and rain up on the highest peaks found in Switzerland. The canton of Valais is widely known for the Matterhorn and resort towns such as Saas Fee, Verbier, and Zermatt. It is composed of 13 districts (hence the 13 stars on the flag) and its capital is Sion.

[ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_blog_media tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_text_separator tag_size=”h1″ text_color=”none” icon_align=”left” tag=”div” tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_headline tag_size=”h2″ color=”color5″ icon_align=”left” tag=”h” tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″ bottom_margin=”no” align=”center”]Geography[/ish_headline][ish_headline tag_size=”h4″ color=”color5″ icon_align=”left” tag=”h” tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″ align=”center”]The canton of Valais lies in the southwest of Switzerland.[/ish_headline]

To its south lies Italy, to the southwest France. To the north the canton is bounded by the Swiss cantons of Vaud and Bern; the cantons of Uri and Ticino lie to its east.

The wide, glacial Rhône valley dominates the area. There are many side valleys which branch off the main valley. These vary from narrow and remote to reasonably populous and popular. At the head of the Mattertal valley liesZermatt, a pretty tourist village dominated by views of the Matterhorn (4,478 m). Fifty of the mountains exceed 4,000 m with the highest, Monte Rosa, reaching 4,638 metres (15,217 ft), and there are numerous glaciersincluding several of the largest in the Alps.

The Rhône drains almost the entire canton and flows in the main valley from east to west down to Martigny, then in a right angle north to its mouth in Lake Geneva. After the small town of Saint-Maurice, the north-eastern banks of the river belong to the canton of Vaud. However two areas are located on the south side of the Alps and are drained by the Po river: the valley south of the Simplon Pass and the small area south of the Great St. Bernard Pass. The main valley is bounded by the Bernese Alps in the north and the Pennine Alps in the south. Other ranges situated partially in Valais are the Chablais Alps, the Mont Blanc Massif, the Urner Alps and theLepontine Alps. Only about half of the total area is considered productive.

[ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_text_separator tag_size=”h1″ text_color=”none” icon_align=”left” tag=”div” tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_quote author=”Richard Milhous Nixon” size=”h4″ align=”center” color=”color5″ tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″]”The greatness comes not when things go always good for you. But the greatness comes when you’re really tested, when you take some knocks, some disappointments, when sadness comes. Because only if you’ve been in the deepest valley can you ever know how magnificent it is to be on the highest mountain.”[/ish_quote][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_text_separator tag_size=”h1″ text_color=”none” icon_align=”left” tag=”div” tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_gallery images=”349,358,447″ thumbnail_size=”theme-large” columns=”3″ animation=”slide” nav_align=”left” nav_color=”color1″ prevnext_color=”color3″ border_width=”1″ tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″ ratio=”square”][ish_gallery images=”444,441,440,20,19″ thumbnail_size=”theme-large” columns=”5″ animation=”slide” nav_align=”left” nav_color=”color1″ prevnext_color=”color3″ border_width=”1″ tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″ ratio=”square”][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_text_separator tag_size=”h1″ text_color=”none” icon_align=”left” tag=”div” tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″][ish_headline tag_size=”h2″ color=”color5″ icon_align=”left” tag=”h” tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″ bottom_margin=”no” align=”center”]History[/ish_headline][ish_divider tooltip_color=”color1″ tooltip_text_color=”color3″]

The Romans called the upper Rhône valley Vallis Poenina. The Vallis Poenina was won by the Romans after a great fight at Octodurus (Martigny) in 57 B.C., and was so thoroughly Romanized that both the Celticoriginal inhabitants and the Germanic Burgundian invaders of the 5th century, became Romance-speaking peoples. According to a tradition which can be traced back to the middle of the 8th century, the Theban legionwas martyred at Agaunum (now Saint Maurice) about 285 or 302. From 888 onwards the lands were part of the kingdom of Jurane Burgundy.

Valais formed part of the kingdom of Transjurane Burgundy, which fell to the Holy Roman Empire in 1032. It became part of the duchy of Burgundia Minor, which was held from the emperors by the house of Zähringen (which went extinct in 1218). In 999, King Rudolph III of Burgundy gave all temporal rights and privileges to the Bishop of Sion, who was later styled praefect and count of the Valais and is still a prince of the Holy Roman Empire. The count-bishops then struggled to defend their area against the Zähringer and then the dukes of Savoy, so that the medieval history of the Valais is inextricably linked with that of the diocese of Sion. The Dukes of Savoy, however, succeeded in winning most of the land west of Sion, while in the upper part of the valley (Upper Valais) there were many feudal lords, such as the lords of Raron, those of La Tour-Chatillon, and the counts of Visp.

About the middle of the 13th century, the large communities (Zenden or tithings) began to develop independence and grow in power. The name Zenden or tithings probably came from a very ancient division of the bishop’s manors for administrative and judicial purposes. In the same century the upper part of the valley was colonized by Germans from Hasli in the Canton of Bern. The locals became German speaking, though many Romance local names still remain. In 1354 the liberties of several of the seven Zenden (Sion, Sierre,Leuk, Raron, Visp, Brig and Conches) were confirmed by the Emperor Charles IV.